What is Reproduction?

Reproduction is one of the important processes by which every living organism makes a copy like itself. It is the means of multiplication and perpetuation of the species because the older individuals of each species undergo senescence and die.

The creation by a life form of a similar life form is called reproduction.

 

Reproduction is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones (offsprings) similar to self.

 

The process by which species is continued is called reproduction.

New life cannot be created de-novo. So, the reproduction is the only method by which continuity of thread of life is maintained.

There is large diversity in the living organisms and each organism has evolved its own mechanism to multiply and produce offsprings. Process of reproduction is controlled by factors like organism’s habitat, internal physiology etc.

Types of Reproduction

There are so many methods of reproduction in the living organisms. All the reproductive methods are broadly categorised into two types – Asexual reproduction and Sexual reproduction.

(i) Asexual

(ii) Sexual

Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction or apomixis is the formation of new individuals without involving the formation and fusion of gametes.

In asexual reproduction, the new individuals are produced by any means other than the fusion of sex gametes.

Sexual Reproduction

Sexual reproduction (amphimixis) involves fusion of two sex gametes to form new individual. It involves meiosis which occurs at the time of sporogenesis in flowering plants. The individuals formed as a result of meiosis and gametic fusion exhibit genetic variation and different from either of two parents.

The sexual reproduction, on the other hand, involves fusion of two sex gametes to form the new individuals.

Differences between Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction
1. Asexual reproduction involves the participation of single individual parent. 1. Sexual reproduction involves participation of two separate parents.
2. It generally occurs without the formation of sex organs. 2. It usually requires the formation of sex organs.
3. It does not involve meiosis or reduction division. 3. It involves meiosis which occurs at the time of a sporogenesis in flowening plants.
4. Asexual reproduction does not involve sexual fusion or fusion of two gametes. Zygotes are not formed. 4. The sexual reproduction requires fertilization to take place between two opposite gametęs leading to the production of a zygote.
5. Since asexual reproduction does not involve meiosis and fusion of gametes, the offsprings are genetically similar to parents and they do not show variations. 5. The individuals produced as a result of meiosis and gametic fusion exhibit genetic variation and difference from either of the two parents.
6. It is a very quick method of multiplication and, there- fore, used by plant breeders for cloning. 6. It is a very slow method of multiplication of individuals.
7. It is always uniparental (single parent). 7. It is usually biparental (two parent).
8. It does not play important role in evolution process. 8. it plays a vital role in evolution process.
9. It involves only mitosis. 9. It involves meiosis.
10. It is common among single-celled organisms, and in plants and animals with relatively simple organisation. 10. It is common in higher animals with complex organisation.

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